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The Intuitionist

By Colson Whitehead
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Anchor
  • Isbn : 0307819965
  • Pages : 272
  • Category : Fiction
  • Reads : 207
  • File Pdf: the-intuitionist.pdf

Book Summary:

This debut novel by the two time Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Underground Railroad and The Nickel Boys wowed critics and readers everywhere and marked the debut of an important American writer. Nominated as one of America’s best-loved novels by PBS’s The Great American Read It is a time of calamity in a major metropolitan city's Department of Elevator Inspectors, and Lila Mae Watson, the first black female elevator inspector in the history of the department, is at the center of it. There are two warring factions within the department: the Empiricists, who work by the book and dutifully check for striations on the winch cable and such; and the Intuitionists, who are simply able to enter the elevator cab in question, meditate, and intuit any defects. Lila Mae is an Intuitionist and, it just so happens, has the highest accuracy rate in the entire department. But when an elevator in a new city building goes into total freefall on Lila Mae's watch, chaos ensues. It's an election year in the Elevator Guild, and the good-old-boy Empiricists would love nothing more than to assign the blame to an Intuitionist. But Lila Mae is never wrong. The sudden appearance of excerpts from the lost notebooks of Intuitionism's founder, James Fulton, has also caused quite a stir. The notebooks describe Fulton's work on the "black box," a perfect elevator that could reinvent the city as radically as the first passenger elevator did when patented by Elisha Otis in the nineteenth century. When Lila Mae goes underground to investigate the crash, she becomes involved in the search for the portions of the notebooks that are still missing and uncovers a secret that will change her life forever. Look for Colson Whitehead’s bestselling new novel, Harlem Shuffle!

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Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity

By Tomasz Placek
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9401593159
  • Pages : 220
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 594
  • File Pdf: mathematical-intuitionism-and-intersubjectivity.pdf

Book Summary:

In 1907 Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer defended his doctoral dissertation on the foundations of mathematics and with this event the modem version of mathematical intuitionism came into being. Brouwer attacked the main currents of the philosophy of mathematics: the formalists and the Platonists. In tum, both these schools began viewing intuitionism as the most harmful party among all known philosophies of mathematics. That was the origin of the now-90-year-old debate over intuitionism. As both sides have appealed in their arguments to philosophical propositions, the discussions have attracted the attention of philosophers as well. One might ask here what role a philosopher can play in controversies over mathematical intuitionism. Can he reasonably enter into disputes among mathematicians? I believe that these disputes call for intervention by a philo sopher. The three best-known arguments for intuitionism, those of Brouwer, Heyting and Dummett, are based on ontological and epistemological claims, or appeal to theses that properly belong to a theory of meaning. Those lines of argument should be investigated in order to find what their assumptions are, whether intuitionistic consequences really follow from those assumptions, and finally, whether the premises are sound and not absurd. The intention of this book is thus to consider seriously the arguments of mathematicians, even if philosophy was not their main field of interest. There is little sense in disputing whether what mathematicians said about the objectivity and reality of mathematical facts belongs to philosophy, or not.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

By Stewart Shapiro
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn : 0190287535
  • Pages : 856
  • Category : Mathematics
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  • File Pdf: the-oxford-handbook-of-philosophy-of-mathematics-and-logic.pdf

Book Summary:

Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics in the best mainstream philosophical journals; in fact, the last decade has seen an explosion of scholarly work in these areas. This volume covers these disciplines in a comprehensive and accessible manner, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The 26 contributed chapters are by established experts in the field, and their articles contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. The essays, which are substantially self-contained, serve both to introduce the reader to the subject and to engage in it at its frontiers. Certain major positions are represented by two chapters--one supportive and one critical. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Math and Logic is a ground-breaking reference like no other in its field. It is a central resource to those wishing to learn about the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic, or some aspect thereof, and to those who actively engage in the discipline, from advanced undergraduates to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and historians.

Intuitionism

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Isbn : 1441196250
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  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 636
  • File Pdf: intuitionism.pdf

Book Summary:

Is the way to moral truth through theory? Or do we already know what's right and wrong? Throughout modern history philosophers have tried to construct elaborate moral systems to determine what's right. Recently, however, some have revived the position that we have intuitive knowledge of right and wrong. In this book, David Kaspar introduces and explores the perspective known as 'Intuitionism'. Charting intuitionism's fall in the twentieth century and its recent resurgence, Kaspar looks at the intuitionist approach to the most important topics in ethics, from moral knowledge to intrinsically good moral action. David Kaspar defends intuitionism against criticisms from competing metaethical schools, such as moral nihilism and ethical naturalism. It also takes on normative rivals, such as utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics. By consolidating the stronger claims of both early analytic and contemporary intuitionists, Kaspar goes on to make a robust case for a rigorously intuitionist approach to explaining morality. Intuitionism also includes chapter summaries and guides to further reading throughout to help readers explore and master this important school of contemporary ethical thought. This is an ideal resource for undergraduates and postgraduates taking courses in ethics, metaethics and moral philosophy.

Radical Skepticism and Epistemic Intuition

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn : 0192653571
  • Pages : 336
  • Category : Philosophy
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  • File Pdf: radical-skepticism-and-epistemic-intuition.pdf

Book Summary:

Radical skepticism endorses the extreme claim that large swaths of our ordinary beliefs, such as those produced by perception or memory, are irrational. The best arguments for such skepticism are, in their essentials, as familiar as a popular science fiction movie and yet even seasoned epistemologists continue to find them strangely seductive. Moreover, although most contemporary philosophers dismiss radical skepticism, they cannot agree on how best to respond to the challenge it presents. In the tradition of the 18th century Scottish philosopher, Thomas Reid, Radical Skepticism and Epistemic Intuition joins this discussion by taking up four main tasks. First, it identifies the strongest arguments for radical skepticism, namely, underdetermination arguments, which emphasize the gap between our evidence and our ordinary beliefs based on that evidence. Second, it rejects all inferential or argument-based responses to radical skepticism, which aim to lay out good noncircular reasoning from the evidence on which we base our ordinary beliefs to the conclusion that those beliefs are probably true. Third, it develops a commonsense noninferential response to radical skepticism with two distinctive features: (a) it consciously and extensively relies on epistemic intuitions, which are seemings about epistemic goods, such as knowledge and rationality, and (b) it can be endorsed without difficulty by both internalists and externalists in epistemology. Fourth, and finally, it defends this commonsense epistemic-intuition-based response to radical skepticism against a variety of objections, including those connected with underdetermination worries, epistemic circularity, disagreement problems, experimental philosophy, and concerns about whether it engages skepticism in a sufficiently serious way.

Paradoxes

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Isbn : 0745665519
  • Pages : 200
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 592
  • File Pdf: paradoxes.pdf

Book Summary:

Paradoxes are arguments that lead from apparently true premises, via apparently uncontroversial reasoning, to a false or even contradictory conclusion. Paradoxes threaten our basic understanding of central concepts such as space, time, motion, infinity, truth, knowledge, and belief. In this volume Roy T Cook provides a sophisticated, yet accessible and entertaining, introduction to the study of paradoxes, one that includes a detailed examination of a wide variety of paradoxes. The book is organized around four important types of paradox: the semantic paradoxes involving truth, the set-theoretic paradoxes involving arbitrary collections of objects, the Soritical paradoxes involving vague concepts, and the epistemic paradoxes involving knowledge and belief. In each of these cases, Cook frames the discussion in terms of four different approaches one might take towards solving such paradoxes. Each chapter concludes with a number of exercises that illustrate the philosophical arguments and logical concepts involved in the paradoxes. Paradoxes is the ideal introduction to the topic and will be a valuable resource for scholars and students in a wide variety of disciplines who wish to understand the important role that paradoxes have played, and continue to play, in contemporary philosophy.

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  • File Pdf: understanding-the-infinite.pdf

Book Summary:

Read and download full book Understanding the Infinite

An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader

By Russell Marcus,Mark McEvoy
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
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  • Category : Philosophy
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  • File Pdf: an-historical-introduction-to-the-philosophy-of-mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

A comprehensive collection of historical readings in the philosophy of mathematics and a selection of influential contemporary work, this much-needed introduction reveals the rich history of the subject. An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader brings together an impressive collection of primary sources from ancient and modern philosophy. Arranged chronologically and featuring introductory overviews explaining technical terms, this accessible reader is easy-to-follow and unrivaled in its historical scope. With selections from key thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume and Kant, it connects the major ideas of the ancients with contemporary thinkers. A selection of recent texts from philosophers including Quine, Putnam, Field and Maddy offering insights into the current state of the discipline clearly illustrates the development of the subject. Presenting historical background essential to understanding contemporary trends and a survey of recent work, An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader is required reading for undergraduates and graduate students studying the philosophy of mathematics and an invaluable source book for working researchers.

Intuitionism

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Isbn : 144115986X
  • Pages : 208
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  • File Pdf: intuitionism.pdf

Book Summary:

Is the way to moral truth through theory? Or do we already know what's right and wrong? Throughout modern history philosophers have tried to construct elaborate moral systems to determine what's right. Recently, however, some have revived the position that we have intuitive knowledge of right and wrong. In this book, David Kaspar introduces and explores the perspective known as 'Intuitionism'. Charting intuitionism's fall in the twentieth century and its recent resurgence, Kaspar looks at the intuitionist approach to the most important topics in ethics, from moral knowledge to intrinsically good moral action. David Kaspar defends intuitionism against criticisms from competing metaethical schools, such as moral nihilism and ethical naturalism. It also takes on normative rivals, such as utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics. By consolidating the stronger claims of both early analytic and contemporary intuitionists, Kaspar goes on to make a robust case for a rigorously intuitionist approach to explaining morality. Intuitionism also includes chapter summaries and guides to further reading throughout to help readers explore and master this important school of contemporary ethical thought. This is an ideal resource for undergraduates and postgraduates taking courses in ethics, metaethics and moral philosophy.

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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
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  • Pages : 432
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  • File Pdf: practical-thought.pdf

Book Summary:

Practical Thought: Essays on Reasons, Intuition, and Action presents a selection of Jonathan Dancy's most important philosophical essays since the late 1970s, focusing on the central themes of his work: metaethics, moral metaphysics, the theory of motivation, and the British Intuitionists. The twenty-four essays in this book chart his intellectual journey.

Zone One

By Colson Whitehead
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Anchor
  • Isbn : 0385535015
  • Pages : 288
  • Category : Fiction
  • Reads : 555
  • File Pdf: zone-one.pdf

Book Summary:

From the two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Underground Railroad and The Nickel Boys A pandemic has devastated the planet, sorting humanity into two types: the uninfected and the infected, the living and the living dead. After the worst of the plague is over, armed forces stationed in Chinatown’s Fort Wonton have successfully reclaimed the island south of Canal Street—aka Zone One. Mark Spitz is a member of one of the three-person civilian sweeper units tasked with clearing lower Manhattan of the remaining feral zombies. Zone One unfolds over three surreal days in which Spitz is occupied with the mundane mission of straggler removal, the rigors of Post-Apocalyptic Stress Disorder (PASD), and the impossible task of coming to terms with a fallen world. And then things start to go terribly wrong… At once a chilling horror story and a literary novel by a contemporary master, Zone One is a dazzling portrait of modern civilization in all its wretched, shambling glory. Look for Colson Whitehead’s bestselling new novel, Harlem Shuffle!

18 Unconventional Essays on the Nature of Mathematics

By Reuben Hersh
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 0387298312
  • Pages : 326
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 622
  • File Pdf: 18-unconventional-essays-on-the-nature-of-mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

Collection of the most interesting recent writings on the philosophy of mathematics written by highly respected researchers from philosophy, mathematics, physics, and chemistry Interdisciplinary book that will be useful in several fields—with a cross-disciplinary subject area, and contributions from researchers of various disciplines

Signs and Cities

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
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  • Pages : 293
  • Category : Social Science
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  • File Pdf: signs-and-cities.pdf

Book Summary:

Signs and Cities is the first book to consider what it means to speak of a postmodern moment in African-American literature. Dubey argues that for African-American studies, postmodernity best names a period, beginning in the early 1970s, marked by acute disenchantment with the promises of urban modernity and of print literacy. Dubey shows how black novelists from the last three decades have reconsidered the modern urban legacy and thus articulated a distinctly African-American strain of postmodernism. She argues that novelists such as Octavia Butler, Samuel Delany, Toni Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Ishmael Reed, Sapphire, and John Edgar Wideman probe the disillusionment of urban modernity through repeated recourse to tropes of the book and scenes of reading and writing. Ultimately, she demonstrates that these writers view the book with profound ambivalence, construing it as an urban medium that cannot recapture the face-to-face communities assumed by oral and folk forms of expression.

Foundations and Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics

By Howard Eves
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
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  • Pages : 368
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 550
  • File Pdf: foundations-and-fundamental-concepts-of-mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

Third edition of popular undergraduate-level text offers historic overview, readable treatment of mathematics before Euclid, Euclid's Elements, non-Euclidean geometry, algebraic structure, formal axiomatics, sets, more. Problems, some with solutions. Bibliography.

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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9400945329
  • Pages : 256
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 380
  • File Pdf: professional-philosophy.pdf

Book Summary:

Over the past several decades serious work in philosophy has become almost wholly inaccessible to people who do not specialize in the subject. To be sure, the writings of Aristotle and Kant were never easy reading, and even relatively untechnical philosophers like Mill or Santayana de mand careful study if we are really to understand them. But during the last generation or two the situation has steadily become worse for readers who may want to know what philosophers of their own time are doing. And this is true even though many writers have been learning to avoid the unnecessary jargon that disfigures so much of traditional philosophy. No matter how direct the English style of recent philosophers may be, their methodic purposes and argument style will re main obscure to anyone who has not gone to considerable trouble to be introduced to them. Then too, the closeness of their analysis and the con sequent narrowness of many of the issues pursued make it hard to catch onto the argument without some familiarity with slightly earlier discus sions from which those issues emerged. All of this helps to account for the rather common but false belief that professional philosophy is now only a collection of technical exercises that could hardly be of interest to anyone but the philosophers themselves.

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By Sten Lindström,Erik Palmgren,Krister Segerberg,Viggo Stoltenberg-Hansen
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 1402089260
  • Pages : 512
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 561
  • File Pdf: logicism-intuitionism-and-formalism.pdf

Book Summary:

This anthology reviews the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and assesses their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. A special section is concerned with constructive mathematics.

The Equation of Knowledge

By Lê Nguyên Hoang
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Isbn : 1000063232
  • Pages : 438
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 842
  • File Pdf: the-equation-of-knowledge.pdf

Book Summary:

The Equation of Knowledge: From Bayes' Rule to a Unified Philosophy of Science introduces readers to the Bayesian approach to science: teasing out the link between probability and knowledge. The author strives to make this book accessible to a very broad audience, suitable for professionals, students, and academics, as well as the enthusiastic amateur scientist/mathematician. This book also shows how Bayesianism sheds new light on nearly all areas of knowledge, from philosophy to mathematics, science and engineering, but also law, politics and everyday decision-making. Bayesian thinking is an important topic for research, which has seen dramatic progress in the recent years, and has a significant role to play in the understanding and development of AI and Machine Learning, among many other things. This book seeks to act as a tool for proselytising the benefits and limits of Bayesianism to a wider public. Features Presents the Bayesian approach as a unifying scientific method for a wide range of topics Suitable for a broad audience, including professionals, students, and academics Provides a more accessible, philosophical introduction to the subject that is offered elsewhere

Harlem Shuffle

By Colson Whitehead
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bond Street Books
  • Isbn : 0385694008
  • Pages : 336
  • Category : Fiction
  • Reads : 111
  • File Pdf: harlem-shuffle.pdf

Book Summary:

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER From two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author Colson Whitehead, a gloriously entertaining novel of heists, shakedowns and rip-offs set in Harlem in the 1960s. "Ray Carney was only slightly bent when it came to being crooked. . . ." To his customers and neighbours on 125th street, Carney is an upstanding salesman of reasonably priced furniture, making a life for himself and his family. He and his wife Elizabeth are expecting their second child, and if her parents on Striver's Row don't approve of him or their cramped apartment across from the subway tracks, it's still home. Few people know he descends from a line of uptown hoods and crooks, and that his façade of normalcy has more than a few cracks in it. Cracks that are getting bigger and bigger all the time. See, cash is tight, especially with all those installment-plan sofas, so if his cousin Freddie occasionally drops off the odd ring or necklace at the furniture store, Ray doesn't see the need to ask where it comes from. He knows a discreet jeweller downtown who also doesn't ask questions. Then Freddie falls in with a crew who plans to rob the Hotel Theresa--the "Waldorf of Harlem"--and volunteers Ray's services as the fence. The heist doesn't go as planned; they rarely do, after all. Now Ray has to cater to a new clientele, one made up of shady cops on the take, vicious minions of the local crime lord and numerous other Harlem lowlifes. Thus begins the internal tussle between Ray the striver and Ray the crook. As Ray navigates this double life, he starts to see the truth about who actually pulls the strings in Harlem. Can Ray avoid getting killed, save his cousin and grab his share of the big score, all while maintaining his reputation as the go-to source for all your quality home furniture needs? Harlem Shuffle is driven by an ingeniously intricate plot that plays out in a beautifully recreated Harlem of the early 1960s. It's a family saga masquerading as a crime novel, a hilarious morality play, a social novel about race and power, and ultimately a love letter to Harlem. But mostly, it's a joy to read, another dazzling novel from the Pulitzer Prize- and National Book Award-winning Colson Whitehead.

The Colossus of New York

By Colson Whitehead
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Anchor
  • Isbn : 0307428281
  • Pages : 176
  • Category : Literary Collections
  • Reads : 683
  • File Pdf: the-colossus-of-new-york.pdf

Book Summary:

In a dazzlingly original work of nonfiction, the two time Pulitzer-Prize winning author of The Underground Railroad and The Nickel Boys recreates the exuberance, the chaos, the promise, and the heartbreak of New York. Here is a literary love song that will entrance anyone who has lived in—or spent time—in the greatest of American cities. A masterful evocation of the city that never sleeps, The Colossus of New York captures the city’s inner and outer landscapes in a series of vignettes, meditations, and personal memories. Colson Whitehead conveys with almost uncanny immediacy the feelings and thoughts of longtime residents and of newcomers who dream of making it their home; of those who have conquered its challenges; and of those who struggle against its cruelties. Whitehead’s style is as multilayered and multifarious as New York itself: Switching from third person, to first person, to second person, he weaves individual voices into a jazzy musical composition that perfectly reflects the way we experience the city. There is a funny, knowing riff on what it feels like to arrive in New York for the first time; a lyrical meditation on how the city is transformed by an unexpected rain shower; and a wry look at the ferocious battle that is commuting. The plaintive notes of the lonely and dispossessed resound in one passage, while another captures those magical moments when the city seems to be talking directly to you, inviting you to become one with its rhythms. The Colossus of New York is a remarkable portrait of life in the big city. Ambitious in scope, gemlike in its details, it is at once an unparalleled tribute to New York and the ideal introduction to one of the most exciting writers working today. Look for Colson Whitehead’s bestselling new novel, Harlem Shuffle!

Zygmunt Zawirski: His Life and Work

By I. Szumilewicz-Lachman,Robert S. Cohen
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 9401107688
  • Pages : 384
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 149
  • File Pdf: zygmunt-zawirski.pdf

Book Summary:

Among the extraordinary Polish philosophers of the past one hundred years, Zygmunt Zawirski deserves to be given particular attention for his fusion of analytic and historical scholarship. Strikingly versatile, and con tributing original work in all his fields of competence, Zawirski thought through issues in the philosophical aspects of relativity theory, on the claims of intuitionalistic foundations of mathematics, on the nature and usefulness of many-value Logics, and on the calculus of probability, on the axiomatic method in science and in the philosophy of science, on the genesis and development of scientific and philosophical concepts, and in his crowning achievement, the conceptual history of notions of time. His work has been too little known in English despite the respect which has been so clearly shown by his Polish COlleagues and students. In this generous selection from his papers and from his great critical study L' Evolution de la Notion du Temps, Dr. Irena Szumilewicz-Lachman has provided a clear account of Zawirski's achievement; and she has written a fine comprehensive introductory essay which provides both the personal and historical context of his work and a systematic survey of his principal publications.

The Development of Ethics, Volume 3

By Terence Irwin
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Isbn : 0191571466
  • Pages : 1048
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 880
  • File Pdf: the-development-of-ethics-volume-3.pdf

Book Summary:

This book is a selective historical and critical study of moral philosophy in the Socratic tradition, with special attention to Aristotelian naturalism. It discusses the main topics of moral philosophy as they have developed historically, including: the human good, human nature, justice, friendship, and morality; the methods of moral inquiry; the virtues and their connexions; will, freedom, and responsibility; reason and emotion; relativism, subjectivism, and realism; the theological aspect of morality. The first volume discusses ancient and mediaeval moral philosophy. The second volume examines early modern moral philosophy from the 16th to the 18th century. This third volume continues the story up to Rawls's Theory of Justice. A comparison between the Kantian and the Aristotelian outlook is one central theme of the third volume. The chapters on Kant compare Kant both with his rationalist and empiricist predecessors and with the Aristotelian naturalist tradition. Reactions to Kant are traced through Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Kierkegaard. Utilitarian and idealist approaches to Kantian and Aristotelian views are traced through Sidgwick, Bradley, and Green. Mill and Sidgwick provide a link between 18th-century rationalism and sentimentalism and the 20th-century debates in the metaphysics and epistemology of morality. These debates are explored in Moore, Ross, Stevenson, Hare, C.I. Lewis, Heidegger, and in some more recent meta-ethical discussion. This volume concludes with a discussion of Rawls, with special emphasis on a comparison of his position with utilitarianism, intuitionism, Kantianism, naturalism, and idealism. Since this book seeks to be not only descriptive and exegetical, but also philosophical, it discusses the comparative merits of different views, the difficulties that they raise, and how some of the difficulties might be resolved. It presents the leading moral philosophers of the past as participants in a rational discussion in which the contemporary reader can participate.

Ethical Intuitionism

By M. Huemer
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 023059705X
  • Pages : 309
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 831
  • File Pdf: ethical-intuitionism.pdf

Book Summary:

A defence of ethical intuitionism where (i) there are objective moral truths; (ii) we know these through an immediate, intellectual awareness, or 'intuition'; and (iii) knowing them gives us reasons to act independent of our desires. The author rebuts the major objections to this theory and shows the difficulties in alternative theories of ethics.

The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic

By Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Isbn : 1472522737
  • Pages : 656
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 969
  • File Pdf: the-bloomsbury-companion-to-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Summary:

Logical methods are used in all area of philosophy. By introducing and advancing central to topics in the discipline, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic emphasizes the crucial role logic plays in understanding philosophical problems. Covering stages in the history of logic and of modern logic, this comprehensive Companion looks ahead to new areas of research and explores issues pertaining to classical logic and its rivals, semantics for parts of natural language, and the application of logic in the theory of rationality. Experts in the field provide a mix of technical chapters that offer excellent encyclopaedias of results in the area and chapters of philosophical discussions that survey a range of philosophical positions. To facilitate further study, this volumes also includes a series of research tools such as a detailed index, an up-to-date list of resources and an annotated bibliography. Balancing technical exposition with philosophical discussion, The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic not only provides students and lecturers with the basis of a course in philosophical logic, it offers anyone working in this key area of contemporary philosophy a valuable research resource.

The Continuum Companion to Philosophical Logic

By Leon Horsten,Richard Pettigrew
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Isbn : 1441118640
  • Pages : 656
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 421
  • File Pdf: the-continuum-companion-to-philosophical-logic.pdf

Book Summary:

The Continuum Companion to Philosophical Logic offers the definitive guide to a key area of contemporary philosophy. The book covers all the fundamental areas of philosophical logic - topics that have continued to attract interest historically as well as topics that have emerged more recently as active areas of research. Seventeen specially commissioned essays from an international team of experts reveal where important work continues to be done in the area and, most valuably, the exciting new directions the field is taking. The Companion explores issues pertaining to classical logic and its rivals, extensional and intensional extensions of classical logic, semantics for parts of natural language, and the application of logic in the theory of rationality. Crucially the emphasis is on the role that logic plays in understanding philosophical problems. Featuring a series of indispensable research tools, including an A to Z of key terms and concepts, a detailed list of resources, a bibliography and a companion website, this is the essential reference tool for anyone working in contemporary philosophical logic.

A Mathematical Prelude to the Philosophy of Mathematics

By Stephen Pollard
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 3319058169
  • Pages : 202
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 588
  • File Pdf: a-mathematical-prelude-to-the-philosophy-of-mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

This book is based on two premises: one cannot understand philosophy of mathematics without understanding mathematics and one cannot understand mathematics without doing mathematics. It draws readers into philosophy of mathematics by having them do mathematics. It offers 298 exercises, covering philosophically important material, presented in a philosophically informed way. The exercises give readers opportunities to recreate some mathematics that will illuminate important readings in philosophy of mathematics. Topics include primitive recursive arithmetic, Peano arithmetic, Gödel's theorems, interpretability, the hierarchy of sets, Frege arithmetic and intuitionist sentential logic. The book is intended for readers who understand basic properties of the natural and real numbers and have some background in formal logic.

From Foundations to Philosophy of Mathematics

By Joan Roselló
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Isbn : 1443834793
  • Pages : 230
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Reads : 521
  • File Pdf: from-foundations-to-philosophy-of-mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

From Foundations to Philosophy of Mathematics provides an historical introduction to the most exciting period in the foundations of mathematics, starting with the discovery of the paradoxes of logic and set theory at the beginning of the twentieth century and continuing with the great foundational debate that took place in the 1920s. As a result of the efforts of several mathematicians and philosophers during this period to ground mathematics and to clarify its nature from a certain philosophical standpoint, the four main schools in the philosophy of mathematics that have largely dominated the twentieth century arose, namely, logicism, intuitionism, formalism and predicativism. It was due precisely to the insufficiencies of the first three foundational programs and the objections raised against them, that interest in Platonism was renewed in the 1940s, mainly by Gödel. Not only does this book pay special attention to the foundational programs of these philosophies of mathematics, but also to some technical accomplishments that were developed in close connection with them and have largely shaped our understanding of the nature of mathematics, such as Russell’s type theory, Zermelo’s set theory and Gödel’s incompleteness theorems. Finally, it also examines some current research programs that have been pursued in the last decades and have tried, at least to some extent, to show the feasibility of the foundational programs developed in the schools mentioned above. This is the case of neologicism, constructivism, and predicativist and finitist reductionism, this last one developed closely with the research program of reverse mathematics.

Mathematics: A Concise History and Philosophy

By W.S. Anglin
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn : 1461208750
  • Pages : 265
  • Category : Science
  • Reads : 681
  • File Pdf: mathematics.pdf

Book Summary:

This is a concise introductory textbook for a one-semester (40-class) course in the history and philosophy of mathematics. It is written for mathemat ics majors, philosophy students, history of science students, and (future) secondary school mathematics teachers. The only prerequisite is a solid command of precalculus mathematics. On the one hand, this book is designed to help mathematics majors ac quire a philosophical and cultural understanding of their subject by means of doing actual mathematical problems from different eras. On the other hand, it is designed to help philosophy, history, and education students come to a deeper understanding of the mathematical side of culture by means of writing short essays. The way I myself teach the material, stu dents are given a choice between mathematical assignments, and more his torical or philosophical assignments. (Some sample assignments and tests are found in an appendix to this book. ) This book differs from standard textbooks in several ways. First, it is shorter, and thus more accessible to students who have trouble coping with vast amounts of reading. Second, there are many detailed explanations of the important mathematical procedures actually used by famous mathe maticians, giving more mathematically talented students a greater oppor tunity to learn the history and philosophy by way of problem solving.

Nature Of Mathematics Ilphil28

By C. K. Ogden
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 1317830512
  • Pages : 236
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 976
  • File Pdf: nature-of-mathematics-ilphil28.pdf

Book Summary:

First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Ultralogic as Universal?

By Richard Routley
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 3319919741
  • Pages : 205
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 222
  • File Pdf: ultralogic-as-universal.pdf

Book Summary:

Ultralogic as Universal? is a seminal text in non-classcial logic. Richard Routley (Sylvan) presents a hugely ambitious program: to use an 'ultramodal' logic as a universal key, which opens, if rightly operated, all locks. It provides a canon for reasoning in every situation, including illogical, inconsistent and paradoxical ones, realized or not, possible or not. A universal logic, Routley argues, enables us to go where no other logic—especially not classical logic—can. Routley provides an expansive and singular vision of how a universal logic might one day solve major problems in set theory, arithmetic, linguistics, physics, and more. It circulated in typescript in the late 1970s before appearing as the Appendix to Exploring Meinong's Jungle and Beyond. With engaging, forceful prose, unsparing criticism of entrenched institutions, and many tantalizing proof sketches (is the Axiom of Choice a theorem of naive set theory?), Ultralogic? has had a major influence on the development of paraconsistent and relevant logic. This new edition makes this work available for a modern audience, newly typeset and corrected, along with extensive notes, and new commentary essays.

Understanding Colson Whitehead

By Derek C. Maus
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Univ of South Carolina Press
  • Isbn : 1643361759
  • Pages : 172
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Reads : 808
  • File Pdf: understanding-colson-whitehead.pdf

Book Summary:

In 2020 Colson Whitehead became the youngest recipient of the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction. Although Whitehead's widely divergent books complicate overarching categorization, Derek C. Maus argues that they are linked by their skepticism toward the ostensible wisdom inherited from past generations and the various forms of "stories" that transmit it. Whitehead, best known for his Pulitzer Prize winning novel The Underground Railroad, bids readers to accompany him on challenging, often open-ended literary excursions designed to reexamine—and frequently defy—accepted notions of truth. Understanding Colson Whitehead unravels the parallel structures found within Whitehead's books from his 1999 debut The Intuitionist through 2019's The Nickel Boys, for which he won his second Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. By first imitating and then violating their conventions, Whitehead attempts to transcend the limits of the formulas of the genres in which he seems to write. Whitehead similarly tests subject matter, again imitating and then satirizing various forms of conventional wisdom as a means of calling out unexamined, ignored, or malevolent aspects of American culture. Although it is only one of many subjects that Whitehead addresses, race is often central to his work. It serves as a prime example of Whitehead's attempt to prompt his readers into revisiting their assumptions about meanings and values. By upending the literary formulas of the detective novel, the heroic folktale, the coming-of-age story, the zombie apocalypse, the slave narrative, and historical fiction, Whitehead reveals the flaws and shortcomings by which Americans have defined themselves. In addition to evoking such explicitly literary storytelling traditions, Whitehead also directs attention toward other interrelated historical and cultural processes that influence how race, class, gender, education, social status, and other categories of identity determine what an individual supposedly can and cannot do.

The Knowability Paradox

By Jonathan L. Kvanvig
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Isbn : 0191536083
  • Pages : 232
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 494
  • File Pdf: the-knowability-paradox.pdf

Book Summary:

The paradox of knowability, derived from a proof by Frederic Fitch in 1963, is one of the deepest paradoxes concerning the nature of truth. Jonathan Kvanvig argues that the depth of the paradox has not been adequately appreciated. It has long been known that the paradox threatens antirealist conceptions of truth according to which truth is epistemic. If truth is epistemic, what better way to express that idea than to maintain that all truths are knowable? In the face of the paradox, however, such a characterization threatens to undermine antirealism. If Fitch's proof is valid, then one can be an antirealist of this sort only by endorsing the conclusion of the proof that all truths are known. Realists about truth have tended to stand on the sidelines and cheer the difficulties faced by their opponents from Fitch's proof. Kvanvig argues that this perspective is wholly unwarranted. He argues that there are two problems raised by the paradox, one that threatens antirealism about truth and the other that threatens everybody's view about truth, realist or antirealist. The problem facing antirealism has had a number of proposed solutions over the past 40 years, and the results have not been especially promising with regard to the first problem. The second problem has not even been acknowledged, however, and the proposals regarding the first problem are irrelevant to the second problem. This book thus provides a thorough investigation of the literature on the paradox, and also proposes a solution to the deeper of the two problems raised by Fitch's proof. It provides a complete picture of the paradoxicality that results from Fitch's proof, and presents a solution to the paradox that claims to address both problems raised by the original proof.

Contemporary British Philosophy

By Lewis, H D
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 1317853288
  • Pages : 520
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 941
  • File Pdf: contemporary-british-philosophy.pdf

Book Summary:

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.